Monument is a part of El Paso County, the most populous county in the entire state of Colorado. After the Pikes Peak Gold Rush in 1858, many miners pushed to create their own territory, separate from territories in Kansas and Nebraska. The Territory of Jefferson was created as a result, though it was never officially recognized by the United States. The territory included 12 distinct regions, one of which was El Paso County, named for the Ute Pass located to the north of Pikes Peak. When the Colorado Territory was created in 1861, El Paso County remained as a part of the Colorado Legislature.
Though the first settlers came to Monument in 1865, the town’s population increased greatly when it became a stopping point along the Rio Grande Railroad. In 1872, the town was incorporated as “Henry’s Station” after Henry Limbach, one of the area’s first settlers. The town’s name was changed a few years later. The name Monument comes from the nearby creek as well as the Monument Rock to the west. The Rio Grande Railroad helped increase attention to the town. With the population increase came small businesses and eventually schools and churches, finally establishing Monument as a legitimate town.
Today, Monument is a part of the always-growing Tri-Lakes region in Colorado State. Tri-Lakes is comprised of Monument Lake, Palmer Lake, and Lake Woodmoor. All three towns are served by the same school district.